Frequently Asked Questions

freequently asked questions

What is the definition of hypoallergenic?

There are no Federal standards or definitions that govern the use of the term “hypoallergenic.” The term means whatever a particular company wants it to mean. Manufacturers of cosmetics labeled as hypoallergenic are not required to submit substantiation of their hypoallergenicity claims to FDA.

What are some of the the pros and cons of UV sterilization?

Pros for UV Sterilization It is convenient to use and no chemicals are needed. Therefore you won’t leave any chemical residue behind.It is able to kill all kinds of microorganisms, including drug resistant bacteria. Cons for UV SterilizationUVC is dangerous to humans. That is why UV sterilization is usually done using UVC lamps with protective shields. Remember to avoid direct exposure to UVC, especially skin and eyes.It has a major limit! UV only works in its light path and can be blocked by objects. Make sure what you want sterilized is directly in line with the UV light. You can minimize this issue by using multiple UV bulbs to generate UV irradiation from different angles. One other limitation of UV sterilization is that UVC causes so much damage in both proteins and DNA/RNA that they cannot be used for biomedical products. For example, UVC sterilization of viruses causes so much damage to the viruses’ surface proteins that they cannot be used as vaccines to induce proper immune responses.  A different kind of “UV inactivation” method is used in biomedical products to preserve viral surface proteins while effectively inactivating viruses. This is also the method we use for our UV inactivated purified virus products because we want to use the intact viral proteins of the UV treated viruses for biomedical use such as generating antibodies. Finally, whether you are looking for a bot to sterilize your counters, or a wand to wave over sketchy hotel sheets, or a gizmo to sanitize your stinky shoes, UV sterilization is a great option. And remember, following manufacturers’ instructions on light-source distance, exposure time and safety precautions for any device you purchase is essential. References:  You can watch the effect of UV exposure time on E. coli killing by clicking here  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z4qrnMlhbpE

How much time does it take for sterilization to work?

Since UV sterilization uses the energy of UVC to destroy biomolecules, its effectiveness depends on the total energy applied which is affected by the length of exposure time and the distance from the light source. For example, if you use a UV lamp held within 1 inch above a petri dish grown with E. coli, it will only take 1-2 min to show a complete sterilization.1 For sterilizing surgical instruments in a medium UV box, it might take 5-10 min. For sterilizing an 8-foot biosafety cabinet in a lab, a common recommendation is 30 min.

How does UV Sterilize Something?

I’m glad you asked! UV sterilization also known as UV disinfection or ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) works by breaking down certain chemical bonds and scrambling the structure of DNA, RNA and proteins, causing a microorganism to be unable to multiply. When a microorganism is unable to multiply, it is considered dead since it cannot reproduce within a host and is no longer infectious.

Is UV sterilization effective for viruses and bacteria?

The short answer is yes, and even more organisms. Studies have shown that UVC at 254 nm is effective against all foodborne pathogens, natural microbiota, molds, and yeasts. Because microorganisms come with different sizes and shapes that affect their UV absorption, the required time for killing each species varies.2

When it comes to UV sterilization, not all kinds of UV are effective. What does that mean?

To get a little technical, ultraviolet (UV) means “beyond violet” and refers to a range of electromagnetic waves with a shorter wavelength (higher frequency and energy) than the visible violet light. UV is divided into three types with reducing wavelengths and increasing energy. They are UVA, UVB and UVC. For UV sterilization, only UVC (100-280nm) has high enough energy to effectively kill microorganisms. When you are shopping for a UV sterilization product to try in your home or business, make sure that its UV wavelength falls in the range of UVC (100-280 nm).

Is UV Sterilization Effective for Viruses and Bacteria?

How effective is UV sterilization? Does it work for bacteria and viruses? What are the pros and cons? These are questions I hear a lot working in the microbiology field, especially when people think about how dirty their cell phone gets. With more and more UV sterilization products coming on the market, you might be wondering if they are worth trying. So, let’s dig in! UV light has been used for sterilization and disinfection as early as the mid-20th century. With advancements in technology, and specifically in the UV bulbs themselves, its reliable long lifespan (thousands-of-hours) and smaller size (e.g. UV LED vs traditional UV bulbs) has broadened the field for where it can be used. You can find it being used to disinfect: water, air, fruits, vegetables, surgical utensils, tablet computers, toys and a variety of surfaces.

Are all disinfectants the same?

The efficacy of disinfectants is measured using log kills—a higher log kill means the product is more effective at killing pathogens. Look for a product that delivers a minimum 6-log reduction to ensure the highest possible efficacy against viruses and other pathogens. Some disinfectant products are also toxic to humans and animals or may be corrosive to materials. Look for products that are safe to use with little or no PPE and not damaging to the surfaces where they will be applied.

What are Safer Chemistry Advanced Technologies

Clinical efficacy of infection prevention programs is not based on equipment alone, but a systematic, standardized approach to infection prevention. Full Spectrum enhances cleaning protocols by providing one simple solution effective against the threats of today, and those of tomorrow.

How long do Artemis Bio Solutions wipes last, and do they have an expiration date?

Artemis wipes typically will last at least three (3) years if the cannister is unopened. Once opened, the wipes will be effective as long as the wipes are wet, and the active ingredients (Quats) have not evaporated from the cannister.

Since EPA registered my end use product, can I state that EPA endorses my product?

No. An EPA registration is a legal requirement under FIFRA. It is not an endorsement of a pesticide product

How does the EPA regulate antimicrobials?

Reviews all data submissions related to pesticides registrations. To register an antimicrobial end-use product with EPA, three types of data are required: efficacy, toxicology, and product chemistry. Efficacy and toxicology data address effectiveness and safety of the end use product. Product chemistry addresses the formula composition, manufacturing process, and analytical methods. All data requirements are defined in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Satisfying EPA data requirements is the only way to get your end-use antimicrobial product registered. Regulates quaternary actives by requiring EXTENSIVE chemistry, eco tox, and mammalian reproductive tox data. Satisfying EPA data requirements (specified in the CFR) is the only way to obtain a registration for a pesticide active. Periodically requires upgrading of registration data through the reregistration process (RED) to reflect any changes in federal law and improved evaluation techniques. Failing to comply will lead to suspension or revocation of a pesticide registrations. EPA’s Office of Enforcement and Compliance (OEC) deals with serious violations. OEC can levy fines, suspend registrations, revoke registrations, seize property, and arrest offenders anywhere in the U.S.

Why does the EPA’s Office of Pesticide Programs regulate pesticides?

The EPA safeguards the general public as congressionally mandated by FIFRA (Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act). EPA is responsible for insuring that pesticides are safe and effective when used as directed. Agricultural pesticides, insecticides, fungicides, rodenticides, antimicrobials and biopesticides are the main classes of pesticides regulated by EPA.

What dye and fragrances can be used in food contact surface sanitizers?

You cannot use a fragrance in a food contact surface sanitizer. You can only use FD&C (food, drug and cosmetic grade) dye in food contact surface sanitizers. The US EPA does not allow non-FD&C colorants or fragrances that may adulterate the food products that come in contact with the surface. All approved dyes will be listed on the confidential statement of formula or manufacturing procedure for each specific food contact surface sanitizer.

Can I just add symbols to my label such as ‘green seal’ approval?

No. EPA does not allow any logo or seal to an end use product label. Even a separate label is considered “peripheral labeling” and still governed under FIFRA. Even advertisement on the Internet is considered “peripheral labeling.” You may add a foreign translation without submitting to EPA for approval.

I’d like to change a few words on the label so that the precautions don’t sound so severe. Is that okay?

No. Precautionary statements, signal words, first aid and disposal statements must be stated word for word as has been approved by the US EPA.

There is too much label language to fit on my bottle? Can I just take off some of this label language?

Yes. However, you may not remove information that relates to the safe use of the material such as the ingredient panel, signal word, precautionary, first aid and disposal statements. You are allowed to remove claims, use sites and environmental surfaces.

What is ‘personal protective equipment’ (PPE) and why do I need it when using a biocide product?

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) includes all clothing and other work accessories designed to protect an individual against workplace hazards. Examples of PPE would include safety goggles, gloves, respirators, aprons, and work boots. When using an antimicrobial, consult your disinfectant label and MSDS for proper PPE.

How do I know that XXXXX end-use registrations really work?

In order to register an antimicrobial product with public health claims, efficacy data to support the claims made on the label must be provided and reviewed by the US EPA.

Does XXXXX have any end use registrations that are tuberculocidal?

Yes, XXXFXX RTU, XXXXX and XXXXX Plus Spray are all tuberculocidal.

Does XXXXX have products with claims against blood borne pathogens (HIV, HAV, HBV, HCV)?

Yes, XXXXX has many end use registrations that have claims against these blood borne pathogens. See Product efficacy chart for details.

What is the difference between a ‘public health’ claim and a ‘non-public health’ claim?

A public health claim is control of a microorganism which is pathogenic to humans (e.g. S. typhi). Identifying a human pathogenic organism constitutes a public health claim. Staphylococcus aureus is an example of a pathogenic organism. A non-public health claim is the control of a non-human pathogen. For example, an animal pathogen such as canine parvovirus, an aesthetic claim such as swimming pool algaecide, control against bacteria that causes spoilage, deterioration or fouling of materials such as paint or industrial fluids.

What is the maximum allowable active quaternary concentration on a food contact surface without a potable water rinse?

a) For public eating establishments and dairy processing, 200 ppm b) For food processing establishments, 400 ppm

What is the difference between a ‘food contact sanitizer’ and a ‘non-food contact sanitizer?

A food contact sanitizer – At a minimum, reduces the level of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by 99.999% on a food contact surface within one minute. All ingredients must be cleared under 40 CFR 180.940 (tolerance exemption for actives and inerts for use in antimicrobial formulations [food contact surface sanitizing solutions]). A potable water rinse is not allowed after sanitization of a food contact surface. A non-food contact sanitizer – At a minimum, reduces the level of Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae or Enterobacter aerogenes by 99.9% on non-food contact surfaces within 5 minutes.

What is a ‘third sink’ sanitizer?

Sanitization processes in public eating establishments and small food processing areas require three steps. The first step is the detergent wash, the second step is a potable water rinse and the third step is immersion in the sanitizing solution. This process is usually performed in a three compartmental sink. In order to sanitize cleaned and rinsed food contact equipment (i.e. a glass, plate, small grinder, utensils), it must remain in the sanitizing solution for 1 minute and allowed to air dry.

What is a ‘neutral disinfectant’? Should I be using a ‘neutral disinfectant’? Are all ‘neutral disinfectants’ the same?

The term neutral refers to the pH of the disinfectant. A neutral disinfectant could have a pH as low as a 6 and as high as 8.5. Whether or not a customer should be using a neutral disinfectant is dependent on end use application. Neutral disinfectants are less likely to dull high gloss floor finishes with repeated use. Typically, medical care facilities prefer neutral disinfectant cleaners. Not all neutral disinfectants are the same. The use dilution, active ingredient(s) and/or surfactant (cleaning agents) could be different.

What does ‘one step disinfectant’ mean? Are XXXXX end-use disinfectant formulations ‘one step’?

To clean and disinfectant in one operation. NOTE: EPA requires that all disinfectants carry the following label direction: “For heavily soiled areas, a pre-cleaning step is required.”

What is the difference between ‘limited disinfectant,’ ‘general disinfectant,’ and ‘hospital disinfectant’?

You can determine a “limited,” “general,” or “hospital” disinfectant by the microorganisms listed on the label. Limited – must be supported by efficacy testing against either Salmonella cholerasuis or Staphylococcus aureus General – must be supported by efficacy testing against both Salmonella cholerasuis and Staphylococcus aureus Hospital – must be supported by AOAC Use Dilution or AOAC Germicidal Spray efficacy testing against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella cholerasuis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa •A “Limited” disinfectant must have the statement “Limited Disinfectant” displayed on the front panel of the label. •A “Hospital” disinfectant will usually state that the product is a “Hospital Disinfectant” or “Meets the requirements for a Hospital Disinfectant.” These statements are not required for a hospital disinfectant.

What is the difference between ‘disinfectants’ and ‘sanitizers’? What is a ‘sterilant’? Does XXXXX carry all of these products?

A sanitizer reduces bacteria on environmental surfaces to a level that is considered safe by public health organizations. A food contact surface sanitizer reduces bacterial contamination by 99.999%. A non-food contact surface sanitizer reduces bacterial contamination by 99.9%. A disinfectant kills all bacteria on environmental surfaces. A sterilant kills all bacteria and spores on environmental surfaces. Quaternaries are not sterilants since they are not effective against spores. XXXXX does not offer any sterilants as part of their antimicrobial line.

What are antibiotic resistant bacteria? Are XXXXX end-use disinfectant formulations effective against antibiotic resistant bacteria?

Bacteria which are no longer inactivated by antibiotic levels currently considered to be clinically effective. Bacteria strains that are resistant to antibiotics (Methicillin and Vancomycin) include: Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Vancomycin Intermediate Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE). BETCO has many formulations with claims against antibiotic resistant bacteria. See efficacy chart for more details.

What is the difference between ‘gram positive’ and ‘gram negative’ bacteria?

Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining. It includes many well-known genera such as Bacillus, Listeria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Clostridium. In contrast to Gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. The proteobacteria are a major group of Gram- negative bacteria, including for instance Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and other Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, Moraxella, Helicobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Bdellovibrio, acetic acid bacteria and Legionella.

What is ‘broad spectrum “efficacy”’?

The EPA’s definition of a “broad spectrum” disinfectant is one that has public health claims for all three of the major classes of organisms. •Bacteria – effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria•Fungi – effective against at least one pathogenic fungi (usually Trichophyton mentagrophytes)•Viruses – effective against pathogenic viruses (at least one enveloped virus such as Influenza A and one non-enveloped virus such as Adenovirus). Sanitizers are not considered broad spectrum by EPA’s definition since they are only meant to reduce bacteria levels.

Why should I care about contact time?

The shorter the contact time, the shorter the time needed to perform the disinfectant process. The maximum contact time for a disinfectant is 10 minutes. XXXXX offers disinfectants with a shorter contact time. This allows for labor savings. The required contact time for food-contact surface sanitizers is 1 minute. For non-food contact sanitizers, contact time is less than or equal to 5 minutes.

Why should I care about hard water tolerance? Are XXXXX end-use disinfectant and sanitizer formulations hard water tolerant?

Water hardness ions are calcium (Ca +2) and Magnesium (Mg +2). These are cations and as such can diminish quaternary efficacy by competing with the positively charged quat for attachment to the negative sites on the microorganism’s cell surface. This is commonly referred to as the “competing ion effect.” The current maximum hard water tolerance claim for hospital disinfectants (dilutable concentrates) is 400 ppm (as CaCo3). Food contact sanitizers (dilutable concentrates) must list a hard water tolerance limit on their label. Typical sanitizer water hardness tolerance can be between 500-1000 ppm. The state of Wisconsin requires a minimum of 500 ppm hard water tolerance for food contact surface sanitizers. ©2007 Betco Corporation. All Rights Reserved. 02/07·1001 Brown Avenue ·Toledo, OH 43607-0127 · 888-GO-BETCO (888-462-3826) · email@betco.com · www.betco.com

How do germicidal quaternaries kill microorganisms?

Germicidal quaternaries carry a positive charge. Surfaces of microorganisms (algae, bacteria, fungi, and viruses) carry a negative charge. When a germicidal quaternary is applied, the positively charged quaternary attaches itself to the negative sites on the organism’s cell surface. This results in the disruption of the organism’s cell surface and eventual death.

I want to use a product to kill SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) but it isn’t on List N. Is it effective against SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)?

If you would like to use a product that is not on our list, look for an EPA-registered product with “human coronavirus” listed as a target pathogen on the product label, then look for the EPA registration number on the label to confirm the product is EPA registered and follow the label directions when using it.

What do I need to know about the EPA N-List

EPA expects all products on List N to kill the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) when used according to the label directions.To find a product, locate the EPA Reg. No. on the product label, then enter the first two sets of numbers into the tool. For example, if EPA Reg. No. 12345-12 is on List N, you can buy EPA Reg. No. 12345-12-2567 and know you’re getting an equivalent product. Read our step-by-step guide.These products are for use on surfaces, not humans.Inclusion on List N does not constitute an endorsement by EPA. Additional disinfectants may meet the criteria for use against SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). EPA will update this list with additional products as needed.

What does it mean that a disinfectant product is “green”?

The United Stated Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently reviewing the way third parties will be able to carry “green” claims on all disinfectant labels. EPA policy at this point does not allow “green” claims to be placed directly on any disinfectant product’s label. While Vital Oxide is mild on skin, hard surfaces, and fabric, and will certainly qualify for “green status” when the designation is allowed, we cannot advertise this claim until it is permitted by the EPA. Vital Oxide is also a powerful disinfectant able to kill some of the toughest and most resistant forms of bacteria and mold. The chemical composition of Vital Oxide is such that it has a minimal impact on the environment and contains no ozone harming volatile compounds (VOC).

Does Vital Oxide discolor fabrics?

In some cases, Vital Oxide can discolor certain fabrics including cotton clothing. It is recommended to always test for color fastness in a small inconspicuous spot before treating the entire article. In one instance we had a report of a child’s clothing being discolored after sitting in a school bus seat that was sprayed with Vital Oxide. In this case the seats were not allowed to completely dry before being occupied. In the process of multiple applications in a short time period a buildup of Vital Oxide can also contribute to discoloration especially if the seats were previously treated with bleach. This is easily addressed by a spray and wipe step to remove built up product.

Can I clean and disinfect at the same time?

In some cases, you can clean and disinfect at the same time, but this depends on how dirty the surfaces you are cleaning/disinfecting are—the dirtier the surface the less effective the disinfectant. Disinfectants need to contact the area to disinfect and cannot do this effectively with a barrier of dirt or grime in the way. Once the dirt has been wiped away the disinfectant can get to work. Under lightly soiled conditions, you can clean and disinfect in the same step with just Vital Oxide. (NOTE: EPA requires all disinfectants carry the following label direction: “For heavily soiled areas, a pre-cleaning step is required.”)

What is a Hospital Disinfectant?

As part of the EPA registration process, disinfectant products are put through rigorous testing to prove their efficacy and measure toxicity. The EPA registers three types of disinfectants: Limited, General, and Hospital. All three disinfectants destroy or irreversibly inactivate certain microorganisms on hard, inanimate surfaces and objects.
You can determine a “limited,” “general,” or “hospital” disinfectant by the microorganisms listed on the label.
 Limited must be supported by efficacy testing against either Salmonella cholerasuis or Staphylococcus aureus. Limited disinfectants are found mostly in household use. 
 General must be supported by efficacy testing against both Salmonella cholerasuis and Staphylococcus aureus. General disinfectants are used in commercial areas. Hospital must be supported by AOAC Use Dilution or AOAC Germicidal Spray efficacy testing against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella cholerasuis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa hides behind biofilm and is difficult to eliminate. Killing this bacterium is required for “Hospital Disinfectant”. Also, as part of this evaluation process, products are assigned to a toxicity category:  The categories range from category 1 (highly toxic) to category 4 (no exposure warnings required on the label). Vital Oxide received an EPA category 4 rating for all exposure routes with the exception of mild eye irritation

Why are disinfectants marketed and sold under different brand and product names?

Companies that register disinfectant products can allow other companies to sell the product under their own product and company name. This is called supplemental distribution. Supplemental distributor products have the same chemical composition and efficacy as primary products, but often have different brand or product names.  Whereas products with primary registrations have two-part registration numbers (e.g., EPA Reg. No. 1234-12), supplemental distributor products have three-part registration numbers (e.g., EPA Reg. No. 1234-12-1). The first two parts of this registration number reflect the primary registration, while the third identifies the distributor’s EPA company number. List N only displays products with primary registrations because EPA has reviewed and approved the labels of primary registrations during the registration process. The labels of supplemental distributor products can only contain language in the EPA-approved master label for the primary registration but may contain only a subset of the master label’s claims. While EPA does not review the labels of supplemental distributor products, the labels of supplemental distributors are generally reviewed and approved by the states where those products are sold. If a primary registration is on List N, EPA expects that product, as well as any supplemental distributor products associated with it, to be effective against SARS-CoV-2 when used according to the label directions. Regardless of whether you are using a primary registration product or a supplemental distributor product, always check that the product’s label includes directions for use for the pathogen on List N. For example, if List N indicates that a product will kill SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) if you follow the directions for rotavirus, make sure the label contains directions for use against rotavirus.

What is product’s the kill time?

Someone that is asking this question is looking for a quick answer to a complex question. The correct answer is “IT DEPENDS” It depends on the contaminate you are trying to eliminate whether biological of chemical. With regards to pathogenic organisms, the EPA requires a registered disinfectant to be effective within 10 minutes. That is the maximum time allowed. For every claim a manufacturer wants to make that is less than the 10-minute maximum, they must have an independent EPA certified lab perform test with their disinfectants on different the different organisms at different time frames, a process that can be very costly. That is why a majority of disinfectant manufacturers only state efficacy when the contact time is 10 minutes.

What are the differences between different hydrogen peroxides?

Accelerated Hydrogen peroxide, which you purchase at a local drugstore, is 3% Hydrogen Peroxide and 97% water making it very unstable and extremely easy to inactivate, which makes it unsuitable for use as a disinfectant on hard non porous surfaces. To resolve this, a team of scientists took Hydrogen Peroxide and created a special formulation by adding chelating agents to help stabilize the hydrogen peroxide. This in turn allows it to accelerate the time it takes to disinfect a surface and remain active, for the length of time required to disinfect. This new highly effective Hydrogen Peroxide based technology is now called Accelerated Hydrogen Peroxide® (AHP®).   Additionally, AHP® contains surfactants (detergents) that allow Rescue™ to work effectively as a cleaner as well as a disinfectant, and wetting agents, that reduce the surface tension of a liquid and allow it to spread across or penetrate the surface of a solid more easily. Ionized Hydrogen Peroxide utilizes a low concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) mixed with air and ionized through a cold plasma arc. This technology generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a means of decontamination. Goggle iHP® is a positively charged fine mist and a relatively new agent utilized for fogging, however it still has all the same distribution drawbacks as its original fogging counterparts as well as additional drawbacks inherent to its chemical properties. The positively charged ions created will repel each other and create better distribution in areas as compared to other fogging agents, but the agent will also be repelled away from other common positively charged materials in the space such as glass and aluminum. These materials may not receive an adequate concentration of iHP® for decontamination. Alternatively, common negatively charged articles such as rubbers and plastics will strongly attract iHP® and will draw concentration away from nearby areas and create an…

What’s the difference between Bioactivate FB and AB Galaxy 4000? Is it just the UV marker in AB Galaxy?

Why is there such a large difference in spread/coverage rate between the two products?  Bioactivate FB shows 1,200 sq. ft. per gallon and  AB Galaxy shows 4,000 sq ft. per gallon (via electrostatic sprayer) 1). The AB Galaxy 4000 does not have a sealer in it. Therefore, while it offers better coverage rates, it does not provide protection on porous surfaces like fabrics. 2). The AB Galaxy 4000 product also does not hold up well in outdoor environments because the sealer offers protection from the elements. 3). The sealer additive in the BioActivate FB reduces coverage rates. That explains the huge difference in coverage rates.

What are the disadvantages of the use of chlorine dioxide?

Is chlorine dioxide explosive?When producing chlorine dioxide with sodium chlorite and chlorine gas, safety measures must be taken with regard to the transport and use of chlorine gas. Sufficient ventilation and gas masks are required. Chlorine dioxide gas is explosive. Chlorine dioxide is a very unstable substance; when it comes in contact with sunlight, it decomposes.During chlorine dioxide production processes, large amounts of chlorine are formed. This is a disadvantage. Free chlorine reacts with organic matter to form halogenated disinfection byproducts. Does chlorine dioxide form byproducts?Chlorine dioxide and its disinfection byproducts chlorite and chlorate can create problems for dialysis patients. Is chlorine dioxide effective?Chlorine dioxide is generally effective for the deactivation of pathogenic microorganisms. It is less effective for the deactivation of rotaviruses and E. coli bacteria.What are the costs of chlorine dioxide use?Chlorine dioxide is about 5 to 10 times more expensive than chlorine. Chlorine dioxide is usually made on site. The costs of chlorine dioxide depend upon the price of the chemicals that are used to produce chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide is less expensive than other disinfection methods, such as ozone.Read more: https://www.lenntech.com/processes/disinfection/chemical/disinfectants-chlorine-dioxide.htm#ixzz6jSpBdOH6

What are the advantages of the use of chlorine dioxide?

AdvantagesThe interest in the use of chlorine dioxide as an alternative for or addition to chlorine for the disinfection of water has increased in the last few years. Chlorine dioxide is a very effective bacterial disinfectant, and it is even more effective than chlorine for the disinfection of water that contains viruses. Chlorine dioxide has regained attention because it is effectively deactivating the chlorine-resistant pathogens Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Chlorine dioxide removes and prevents bio films. Disinfection with chlorine dioxide does not cause odor nuisance. It destroys phenols, which can cause odor and taste problems. Chlorine dioxide is more effective for the removal of iron and manganese than chlorine, especially when these are found in complex substances. Does chlorine dioxide form chlorinated disinfection byproducts?The use of chlorine dioxide instead of chlorine prevents the formation of harmful halogenated disinfection byproducts, for example trihalomethanes and halogenated acidic acids. Chlorine dioxide does not react with ammonia nitrogen, amines or other oxidizable organic matter. Chlorine dioxide removes substances that can form trihalomethanes and improves coagulation. It does not oxidize bromide into bromine. When bromide containing water is treated with chlorine or ozone, bromide is oxidized into bromine and hypobromous acid. After that these react with organic material to form brominated disinfection byproducts, for example bromoform. Is the chlorine dioxide concentration needed for sufficient disinfection high?The use of chlorine dioxide reduces the health risk of microbial pollutions in water and at the same time decreases the risk of chemical pollutions and byproducts. Chlorine dioxide is a more effective disinfectant than chlorine, causing the required concentration to kill microorganisms to be much lower. The required contact time is also very low. Does the pH value influence chlorine dioxide efficiency?Contrary to chlorine, chlorine dioxide is effective at a pH of between 5 and 10. The efficiency increases at high…

What are the three methods of decontamination?

Three basic methods of decontamination are physical removal, chemical deactivation, and biological deactivation of the agent.

What causes a tote to cavitate?

Improper venting when filling gallon jugs. When filling containers with Part A make sure to completely remove the lid them screw lid back on when done. Part B totes have a lid that automatically vents.

What is the difference between an electrostatic sprayer and a fogger?

Objects and surfaces attract the disinfectant from an electrostatic sprayer! Whereas, misters and fogging systems deliver very small droplets that passively deposit on surfaces based on the direction of spray and the effect of gravity, which may result in uneven coverage.

What Personal Protective Equipment is required when using Artemis products?

XXXXXX (Artemis’ Products ?) have an excellent safety profile and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) includes gloves and protective eyewear. When employees are working in an environment where they may be exposed to harmful pathogens or other potential health hazards, additional PPE may be required, such as those listed below: Disposable boot/shoe covers or rubber boots Tyvek suit or disposable gowns Eye protection: face shield, goggles, or face mask with eye protection Respiratory protection: N-95 mask or better

What Personal Protective Equipment is required when using Artemis products?

Equipment (PPE) includes gloves and protective eyewear. When employees are working in an environment where they may be exposed to harmful pathogens or other potential health hazards, additional PPE may be required, such as those listed below: Disposable boot/shoe covers or rubber boots Tyvek suit or disposable gowns Eye protection: face shield, goggles, or face mask with eye protection Respiratory protection: N-95 mask or better

What are the different levels of disinfectants?

The EPA registers three different types of disinfectants: Limited, General and Hospital. All three disinfectants destroy or irreversibly inactivate certain microorganisms on hard, inanimate surfaces and objects. You can determine a “limited, general” or “hospital disinfectant by the organisms listed on the label. Limited must be supported by efficacy testing against either Salmonella cholerasuis or Staphylococcus aureus. Limited disinfectants are found mostly in household use products.General or Broad Spectrum must be supported by efficacy testing against both Salmonella cholerasuis and Staphylococcus aureus. General disinfectants are used in commercial areas.Hospital must be supported by AOAC Use Dilution or AOAC Germicidal Spray efficacy testing against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella cholerasuis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pseudomonas aeruginosa hides behind biofilm and is difficult to eliminate. Killing this bacterium is required for “Hospital Disinfectant”.

How long is the contact time?

The label on the disinfectant will advise the contact time (“remain wet”) which will be determined by the pathogen being destroyed.

How long before you can reoccupy of room after it has been treated with a disinfectant?

The time depends on many factors. What disinfectant is be used?What apparatus is being utilized to deploy the disinfectant, ULV, electrostatic, trigger/deck sprayer etc.?What level of contamination is present? This will determine the concentration (PPM) of the solution that is required.

I want to use a product to kill SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) but it isn’t on List N. Is it effective against SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)?

From the EPA website regarding N-List products: If you would like to use a product that is not on our N-List, look for an EPA-registered product with “human coronavirus” listed as a target pathogen on the product label, then look for the EPA registration number on the label to confirm the product is EPA registered and follow the label directions when using it.

EPA N-List FAQs

EPA expects all products on the N-List to kill the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) when used according to the label directions.To find a product, locate the EPA Reg. No. on the product label, then enter the first two sets of numbers into the tool. For example, if EPA Reg. No. 12345-12 is on List N, you can buy EPA Reg. No. 12345-12-2567 and know you’re getting an equivalent product. Read our step-by-step guide.These products are for use on surfaces, not humans.Inclusion on List N does not constitute an endorsement by EPA. Additional disinfectants may meet the criteria for use against SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). EPA will update this list with additional products as needed.

What does it mean that a disinfectant product is “green”?

The United Stated Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently reviewing the way third parties will be able to carry “green” claims on all disinfectant labels. EPA policy at this point does not allow “green” claims to be placed directly on any disinfectant product’s label. While XXXX is mild on skin, hard surfaces, and fabric, and will certainly qualify for “green status” when the designation is allowed, we cannot advertise this claim until it is permitted by the EPA. XXXXXXX is also a powerful disinfectant able to kill some of the toughest and most resistant forms of bacteria and mold. The chemical composition of XXXXX is such that it has a minimal impact on the environment and contains no ozone harming volatile compounds (VOC). Also, as part of this evaluation process, products are assigned to a toxicity category:  The categories range from category 1 (highly toxic) to category 4 (no exposure warnings required on the label). XXXXX received an EPA category 4 rating for all exposure routes with the exception of mild eye irritation.

Does XXXXX discolor fabrics?

In some cases, XXXXX can discolor certain fabrics including cotton clothing. It is recommended to always test for color fastness in a small inconspicuous spot before treating the entire article. In one instance we had a report of a child’s clothing being discolored after sitting in a school bus seat that was sprayed with XXXXX. In this case the seats were not allowed to completely dry before being occupied. In the process of multiple applications in a short time period a buildup of XXXXX can also contribute to discoloration especially if the seats were previously treated with bleach. This is easily addressed by a spray and wipe step to remove built up product.

Can I clean and disinfect at the same time?

Option 1: In some cases, you can clean and disinfect at the same time, but this depends on the bioburden (how dirty) the surfaces are that you are cleaning/disinfecting, —the dirtier the surface the less effective the disinfectant. Disinfectants need to contact the area to disinfect and cannot do this effectively with a barrier of dirt or grime (bioburden) in the way. Once the dirt has been wiped away the disinfectant can get to work. Under lightly soiled conditions, you can clean and disinfect in the same step with just XXXXX. (NOTE: EPA requires all disinfectants carry the following label direction: “For heavily soiled areas, a pre-cleaning step is required.”) Option 2: You can clean and disinfect with the same product but in two steps. Cleaning requires the removal of visible soil and or organic debris. The second step requires spraying the product and making sure the surface remains wet based on the label directions and the pathogen you are eliminating.

What is the difference between a cleaner and a disinfectant?

Cleaners are not registered with the EPA and cannot make public health claims on their label such as killing germs or having any anti-microbial action.

When fogging, how much area will your Bio-Oxygen products cover?

Artemis Bio-Oxygen® Chem Decon can be applied using a ULV sprayer-fogger, electrostatic sprayer or a Hudson-type sprayer. Coverage rates vary depending on the level of contamination and the device. When using the Artemis MST Micro Sprayer-Fogger, one gallon of the mixed 2-part solution will treat approximately 2000 to 2500 square feet in a typical 8 ft. ceiling construction environment. Coverage rates with an electrostatic sprayer vary from 3000 to 10000 sq. ft. per gallon. In a typical Hudson sprayer, one gallon treats 800 to 1000 sq. ft.

How does the residual barrier of Bio-Oxygen® Chem Decon work?

Bio-Oxygen® Chem Decon is a unique, 2-part formula that is mixed together before use.  Part A has an extensive and proprietary list of ingredients that decompose toxins. Part B is a commercial-grade Hydrogen Peroxide with penetration and oxidation properties.  When the two parts are mixed together, the result is a completely different chemical reaction than if the two were applied separately.  During the time in which Bio-Oxygen® Chem Decon is applied (called the “dwell” time) to eradicate toxins, the properties of the two components degrade one another to the point of creating a hardened surface that consists mostly of alkali and pure oxycarbonate. A portion of the alkali (carbonate) rearranges in a way to form a water-insoluble compound.  This “barrier” creates an alkaline surface with a pH high enough (pH over 8) to inhibit growth of microorganisms.[CH1] 

Do Artemis Bio-Oxygen® products leave a residual barrier to deter future growth of pathogens?

Option 1: Yes. Artemis Bio-Oxygen® products leave a residual barrier that is extremely resistant to growth of microorganisms, mold and algae. This “invisible barrier” is non-toxic, nonflammable and environmentally safe.  Industrial hygienists have tested microorganism spore activity before and after treatment with Artemis’ Bio-Oxygen® products and found non-viable spore counts to be near zero on most sites. Option 2: We have many independent studies showing residual efficacy against ???[CH1] 

Is your hand soap and hand sanitizer effective?

Yes, Artemis hand sanitizer is 99.9??% [CH1] effective against most common germs. This study, published in American Journal of Infection Control concluded that the active ingredient in Artemis’ hand sanitizer, BZK (benzalkonium chloride), was nearly twice as effective as alcohol-based hand sanitizers when tested against Staphylococcus aureus.  [CH1]Same as above

Why doesn’t Artemis soap and hand sanitizer contain alcohol?

We make non-alcohol-based hand soap and sanitizer for numerous reasons: 1. Artemis’ foam-based soap and sanitizers have been tested and proven to be three times more effective than alcohol-based products against common germs and viruses.2. Artemis products are 99.9XXX% [CH1] effective against many RNA viruses, including coronaviruses, Norovirus and Norwalk. Alcohol-based products are ineffective against RNA viruses.3. Artemis soap and sanitizers do not dry out skin like alcohol-based products. Instead, our products moisturize skin while they kill germs.4. Alcohol-based products are flammable. We scientifically engineered our products to be highly effective and able to be used in venues that do not allow flammable products, such as airports, subways and train stations.5. Artemis soap and sanitizers are antiseptic and hypoallergenic, so they can be safely applied to scrapes and cuts without causing sting.6. Alcohol-based sanitizers can stain a variety of surfaces and fabrics. Artemis sanitizers do not leave stains.7. Most alcohol-based sanitizers are gels, which are known to harbor bacteria.8. Artemis non-alcohol, foam-based soap and sanitizers are two to three-times more cost effective than alcohol-gel products.  [CH1]I’m not sure what we can currently claim so needs to be updated

When should I use PPE (personal protective equipment) in applying your solutions?

We recommend that you always follow directions on our safety data sheets (SDS) regarding the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). When applied the PPE described on each SDS should be used to meet EPA and OSHA guidelines. In addition to the directions provided in SDS, the proper use of PPE depends on the environment and contaminant you’re treating. We recommend that you always don PPE when treating an infected or contaminated area.[CH1]

Are Artemis products safe to use by anyone?

Yes. Artemis Bio-Solutions, LLC develops and provides products that are highly effective, safe and environmentally friendly when used as directed. Always refer to product labels and safety data sheets before using any Artemis Bio-Solutions product.[CH1] 

Are Artemis products effective against coronavirus?

Yes. Artemis products are highly effective against numerous viruses, bacteria, fungi and harmful chemicals, including the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19. A 2004, joint study by Sandia National Laboratories and Kansas State University showed complete inactivation against coronaviruses, such as SARS, after one minute of exposure to the Artemis Bio-Oxygen Chem Decon formula[. Artemis’ Defender line of products is included on EPA’s List N of approved disinfectants for novel coronavirus. CH1] .[CH2] 

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